Effects of estrogens on the female body

Estrogens are a group of hormones that play essential roles in the female body.

While most people know estrogens for their role in female sexual and reproductive health, estrogen also contributes to other essential body processes.

In addition to affecting the function of the ovaries, estrogens also contribute to many other organ systems in the body, such as the bones and the brain.

This article describes in detail the different functions of estrogen and what are the effects of estrogen in the female body.

RELATED: How to Increase Estrogens?

How does estrogen affect women?

It is not news that estrogen is essential for female sexual health and reproductive function.

However, few know that these hormones have effects at other levels. Estrogens affect the urinary tract, heart, bones, breasts, skin, hair, muscles, and brain.

Because of its diversity of functions in the body, a change in the amount of estrogen can have so many different effects.

Effects of estrogen on the female body.

Here are some of the functions of estrogen in the body:

  • Brain – In the brain, estrogens play a fundamental role in stopping memory loss and regulating temperature, sexual behavior, and mood.
  • Bones – Estrogen helps fix calcium in the body and contributes to bone density.
  • Heart and liver – Estrogens help regulate the production of cholesterol in the liver and decrease the risk of plaque in the arteries.
  • Ovaries – Estrogen helps stimulate the maturation of the ovaries and enables the start of the menstrual cycle.
  • Vagina – In the vagina, estrogen maintains the thickness of the vaginal wall and promotes lubrication.
  • Uterus – estrogen improves and supports the mucous membrane that lines the uterus. It also regulates the flow and consistency of uterine mucus secretions.
  • Breasts – estrogens are used by the body to stimulate breast development at puberty. This hormone also helps prepare the glands for future milk production.

Factors that change estrogen levels

The ovaries, adrenal glands, and fatty tissues produce estrogens. Both the female and male bodies have this hormone, but women make more.

Estrogen levels vary between individuals. They also fluctuate during the menstrual cycle and throughout a woman’s life.

In addition, estrogen levels change according to diet and lifestyle, so these factors are essential to control their levels.

This fluctuation can sometimes produce effects such as mood swings before menstruation or hot flashes during menopause.

Factors that can alter estrogen levels:

  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding
  • Age – Puberty and menopause
  • menopause
  • Bodyweight – Overweight and obesity, anorexia
  • Extreme diets or workouts
  • Medications – steroids, ampicillin, medications that contain estrogens, phenothiazines, and tetracyclines
  • Conditions – Turner syndrome, hypertension, diabetes
  • , primary ovarian failure, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
  • Underactive pituitary gland
  • Tumors in the ovaries or adrenal glands

When estrogen levels drop

Women’s estrogen levels drop during perimenopause.

Perimenopause is a period when a woman’s hormones begin to change and cause symptoms.

This happens before your menstrual period stops completely, known as menopause.

Symptoms of low estrogen levels can be:

  • Hot flashes and night sweats – One of the most common symptoms of low estrogen is hot flashes. When blood runs to the skin’s surface, this can give you a feeling of warmth; your face may look flushed. Hot flashes while you sleep, are called night sweats.
  • Mood swings – Another effect of low estrogen levels are feeling sad, anxious, or frustrated. Changes in hormone levels and night sweats can disrupt your sleep. This can cause fatigue, which can make mood swings worse.
  • Tissue thinning – For many, losing weight can be seen as a positive thing. However, the effects of estrogens are not just fat loss. The skin may appear more wrinkled. Thinning of the urinary tract can lead to bladder infections, and thinning of the vagina can lead to dryness and pain during sexual intercourse.
  • Osteoporosis. Estrogen helps maintain strong bones by preventing calcium loss. Low estrogen levels can weaken bones. A family history of osteoporosis can also increase your risk.
  • Heart disease Estrogen produced by the body appears to protect against heart disease. You can do this by increasing HDL (good) cholesterol in your blood. After menopause, the risk of heart disease increases dramatically.

How to raise estrogens?

Women who drink a lot of alcohol, smoke, and lead unhealthy lifestyles are at higher risk for low estrogen levels.

Making dietary changes, such as consuming more phytoestrogens and exercising, can help increase estrogens. Additionally, some natural supplements can help achieve healthy blood estrogen levels.

Some women may need medical therapies such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) when natural is not enough.

This type of treatment can regulate estrogen levels in the body and reduce some symptoms of menopause.

Hormone replacement therapy can also help prevent osteoporosis in some women. But it can increase your risk for other conditions, such as heart disease, breast cancer, blood clots in the legs or lungs, and stroke.

Not all women need HRT. Talk to your healthcare provider about whether HRT is suitable for you.


Estrogen is a hormone that performs various functions at different levels in the body.

In women, it helps develop and maintain both the reproductive system and female characteristics and ensures a healthy brain and bones.

Estrogen levels can drop during perimenopause. This can affect different body areas and cause hot flashes, mood swings, and weight loss.

If you experience low estrogen symptoms, check with your healthcare providers. They will be a guide to adjusting estrogen levels to healthy values.

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