Effects of tobacco on metabolism – Is the electronic cigarette better?

The effects of tobacco on metabolism

It is not news that cigarettes and optimal metabolism are two opposing concepts. When smoking, protein synthesis is hampered and muscle recovery processes. In the long term, one of the effects of tobacco is sarcopenia: muscle degeneration and loss of muscle strength (2).

Today, the boom in healthy eating and fitness has led tobacco companies to try to adapt to the situation. What has led to the launch of electronic cigarettes and IQOS? Is the electronic cigarette better?

To answer the question, you must determine the effects of tobacco on metabolism.

Influence of the cigarette on the increase of muscular mass

It is known that smoking disrupts muscle recovery processes, sports performance, and, therefore, muscle mass increase.

In addition, smokers have a lower maximum respiratory capacity.

The most damaging element in cigarettes is carbon monoxide. Once in the blood, this molecule binds with hemoglobin and will destroy the ability of red blood cells to carry oxygen. As a result, the cells of the muscles suffer from a considerable lack of oxygen.

Tobacco and hormones Can it cause low testosterone?

It has been confirmed that tobacco can affect telomeres, a part of DNA directly related to aging processes. Over time, this segment is gradually shortened and is the leading cause of old age. In the body of a smoker, this process occurs more quickly.

In addition, studies have confirmed that tobacco causes an imbalance in the hormonal system. So it is not a habit compatible with people who do sports. Levels of the stress hormone cortisol increase. Which generates a lower production of testosterone and growth hormone in the long term (3).

Effects of cigarettes on the heart

A smoker’s heart beats 30% faster than a non-smoker; this phenomenon increases blood pressure and creates an additional load on the cardiovascular system during exercise. These facts become evident when comparing the strength and strength of a smoking athlete with one who is not.

A smoker’s heart works ineffectively; this can be dangerous for an athlete because they will experience shortness of breath and an increased load on the heart. A chronic smoker can run a marathon, but doing so will push his soul to the limit of its capacity.

Does smoking affect sleep?

Smoking overloads the nervous system, causing irritability, mood swings, and sleep disturbances.

On the other hand, nicotine interacts with the effects of the sleep hormone melatonin. For this reason, it is usually more difficult for a smoker to fall asleep.

Is the electronic cigarette better?

Electronic cigarettes emerged about ten years ago; During this time, both the technology and the attitude of physicians towards such products have changed significantly.

For example, smoking bans on board an airplane or in public places also extended to electronic cigarettes, vaporizers, and other tobacco substitutes.

Big cigarette companies like Philip Morris International actively promote their new IQOS product under the slogan “heat not “urn.” Basing a “smaller amount of tobacco effects.

This electronic device gets hot and doesn’t budoesn’tigh temperatures. However, that these devices reduce the effects of tobacco has not been confirmed by scientists.

Types of electronic cigarettes

An electronic cigarette is defined as a device capable of heating or vaporizing smoke. The most common electronic cigarette consists of a battery, a steam generator, and a cartridge.

The battery powers the steam generator, which, when heated, causes the evaporation of a special liquid, thus forming the vapor and, in the end, a sensation similar to cigarette smoke. The liquid in the cartridge may or may not contain nicotine.

There are various electronic cigarettes, from the most classic to pipes, battery-powered vaporizers, and large ones with built-in tanks.

In 2016, PMI applied the IQOS to approve the new product in the FDA as a substitute for modified risk tobacco 2016. (5)

The total investment in the IQOS project exceeded $ 5 billion. (1) The multinational tobacco company Philip Morris sees the future in this new product and forecasts an increase in the market for electronic cigarettes of up to 40% by 2025.

IQOS vaporizers are an updated version of electronic cigarettes. The main difference is that the aromatic liquid is not vaporized, but real dry tobacco is heated.

In theory, in IQOS devices, some of the effects of smoking are reduced. This is because combustion does not occur, and therefore some damaging compounds could not be generated. What does science say?

Is smoking IOQS better than smoking a regular cigarette?

Whether the IQOS electronic cigarette is better than smoking a regular cigarette has generated controversy in the scientific community.

Research carried out by tobacco companies shows that when a person smokes a regular cigarette, it creates combustion. Combustion produces toxic compounds such as carbon monoxide (CO).

When smoking IQOS, the combustion process does not occur because the tobacco is heated to a regulated temperature of about 300 ºC.

In contrast, a study conducted by Naoki Kunugita, a renowned Japanese pulmonologist scientist, declares that the nicotine concentrations are the same in both regular cigarettes and IQOS cartridges.

These investigations confirmed the presence of TSNAs, and CO. Although in less concentration, but present at the end.

Naoki discourages the use of any form of tobacco in his work.

What ingredients do IQOS cartridges contain?

The ingredients of the IQOS cartridges have not been published but are likely to be similar to those of regular tobacco. What is known is that the composition of the air of the IQOS does not entirely escape carcinogenic elements.

Typical tobacco leaves from Marlboro cigarettes can contain invert sugar, ammonium hydroxide, licorice extract, cocoa derivatives, and several “natural-l” oking” flavors “2).

Each of these added ingredients plays a different role. For example, ammonium hydroxide improves the quality of tobacco (although it is also a potential carcinogen). Licorice helps to “open” the “lung,” increasing nicotine absorption level.

Regarding flavorings, tobacco campaigns have been criticized for the fact that the main objective of these substances is to increase dependence on smoking (3).

Electronic Cigarettes: What Do Doctors Say?

The World Health Organization insists on a total ban on electronic cigarettes, vaporizers, and similar devices. They cite that the effects on human health have not yet been determined. Products are constantly being changed, and there is no time to trace their consequences.

His answer is solid: “Under the “guise of a toy, they are trying to sell us an extremely toxic poison that causes great dependency.”

Although “the necessary time has not passed to determine if the electronic cigarette is better or more harmful. A similar effect trend has been confirmed.

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